Genetically Modified Food and Food Security in Ghana. Photo by

I said I was going to take a break from writing on development stuff for a while, and technically I have. But this is highly important, and people need to be aware of this, so here goes. I woke up this morning and went online to get my daily doze of global and Ghana news. Head to, and what do I see? “Health Alert!: Will Parliament Succumb to US Pressure?” Always one for intrigue, I proceed to read the article. It turns out the Ghanaian parliament and U.S. Congress are working on passing a Bill known as the “BioSafety Act” which will allow the introduction of genetically modified food in Ghana’s food chain.

GMOs are organisms (food, animals etc) made using molecular biological techniques. And despite what the bill’s name suggests, for many experts these foods are far from being “safe”. There have been numerous reports of people suffering from “mysterious” diseases due to the production or consumption of GMOs. I wrote an article about how GMOs affect the international student population at Mount Holyoke College. You can read the article here.

The proponents of genetically modified food claim that it can help avert a food crisis or starvation in the poorer nations. And that’s why they push for genetically modified food production in developing countries. True, you might increase the ability of your crops to resist disease and bad weather, and you might even be able to grow those crops in more seasons thus increasing your total yield. But these crops are not destined to remain on the field, are they? So what then are the real effects of genetically modified food? I can testify that the results are not as beautiful as they are made out to be. I started college in the US in September 2005 and since then I have noticed a number of changes in my physique. Sure, we have the normal changes as one grows up, but these ones…definitely triggered by something other than just growing up.

The US mass produces genetically modified food, and they are the cheapest foods you’ll find around. Big food companies like McDonald’s use GMOs in their food and so they transmit this food to a huge populace. My college offered numerous food options other than fast food, as it has many dining halls which operate at the same time. However, the ability to pick and choose and plan healthy meals didn’t save me or my friends from the effects of genetically modified food. For one thing, if you’re a girl/woman, you’ll most likely experience some irregularities when it comes to your period. I’m generally an active person, so I usually don’t have painful cramps and what-nots. Until I got here that is. All of a sudden, you have highly unbearable cramps with nausea and what-nots. One of my friends actually gets bed-ridden during her period, and this wasn’t the case when she was back in Ghana. What’s going on here, you ask? Hormonal interference. The artificial hormones injected into genetically modified food messes with your body’s natural hormone system and then you have a whole bunch of problems. Oh, lets not forget the “love-handles”. They are far from loving when you finally have them and figure out what they are. Basically, it’s excess fat that your body has stored, and its usually at hip or waist area. Now there’s one thing when you’ve put on a few pounds in a healthy and even manner. It’s a totally different ball game when you see a skinny girl walking around with huge love-handles. Trust me, it’s not a pretty sight.

You might be thinking this has nothing to do with you. But please, take a moment and think about this. Once this bill is passed, most Ghanaian farmers will probably opt for genetically modified food. Why? Because the US will be giving higher support to farmers who push for genetically modified food. Real, healthy, organic food will become a luxury, that only the rich in Ghanaian society can afford. How am I so sure of this? It’s exactly the same thing that’s happening in the U.S. In order to be guaranteed organic food (which practically all Ghanaians, for the most part, have access to right now), you have to be pay a higher price. Many people who can afford it, and want to eat healthy food, opt for products from Whole Foods, which carries organic food. And trust me, it is quite an investment.

How would the passing of this bill affect the Ghanaian economy? Well, according to those who push for genetically modified food, more people will be fed, which will lead to more people who are able to work, hence increasing the economic productivity of the country. True, that will most likely happen. But not indefinitely, because eventually, the health effects of consuming those genetically modified food will show up. I know that Ghanaians love to chew their chicken bones after some serious fufu and light soup. Once the genetically modified food take-over is finalised, chewing your bones will probably be a thing of the past. Why? Because the hormones injected into chickens are usually put in the bone, so you’d essentially be putting yourself at risk if you decide to go ahead and chew on those bones. Obesity, health disease, cancer etc. There are untold number of diseases emerging every day in countries that use genetically modified food. Trust, those will show up in Ghana too. We barely have our health insurance system straightened out, so who’s gonna pay the cost? You the consumer. And since your entire family is probably consuming the same genetically modified food, its gonna be quite a pinch for you money-wise. Unless of course, you’re just swimming in money. Meaning, the income -divide will most likely widen further, as poorer people channel their resources towards health-care instead of investing in business ventures or reaping back profits.

Another element of this entire thing is the fact that we could possibly be giving away rights to producing some of these foods. Yam, cassava, okro, tomatoes etc. Anyone who can afford it, and is willing, probably has a private vegetable garden in their homes. With the genetically modified food takeover, it might be illegal for you to grow these without first obtaining permission. I’m not making this up (why would I?), there have been cases in other developing countries where people adopted genetically modified food variants of their local foods and have been sued for using food without going through the necessary procedures of obtaining permission. How is this so? Well, since genetically modified food manufacturers add a different gene or hormone or what-have you to a regular tomato (for instance), in order to make it more hardy or increase its yield, they figure they have come up with something ‘original’ and hence claim that genetically modified food variant as their own. Now, should this bill pass, the US will be more than happy to supply these genetically modified food variants to Ghanaians at a cheaper cost than what we currently have. Going by economic logic, the consumer will opt for the cheaper good, hence genetically modified food. Note that the ‘consumer’ in this case doesn’t just mean you and I, it also means our farmers. They might even get the first couple of genetically modified food seeds and what-not for free. And once they plant those seeds and start growing them, the US can claim ownership. No more can you eat a tomato, and plant the seeds. Because essentially, those seeds have been modified and patented, and so, you don’t “own” them. It’s how the system of intellectual property rights works, and I did a piece on the need for awareness on intellectual property rights issues as well.

The final danger is with regards to foreign assistance. In as much as I wish our government would limit how many foreign loans and grants it accepts, that’s not gonna happen anytime soon. Passing the ‘Biosafety Act’ and producing genetically modified food will limit our policy space. Organizations wishing to grant us loans and aid can mandate that we accept so-so and so amount of so-so and so genetically modified food as a pre-condition for getting the loan. We’re just spinning ourselves into a tight web of conditions. We don’t need any more. Seriously. I sincerely hope the Ghanaian parliament looks at the whole picture and the long term effects of passing this Bill, before making a final decision. True, the US operates on genetically modified food but does that mean we have to? Heck, even the US is shifting its attention to organic, healthy, non-genetically modified foods. That should tell us something. And yes, there are other advanced countries which operate on an organic-food only basis. France and Germany for instance. I hope Ghana holds talks with these two countries to find out how they are operating on a Non-genetically modified food basis. We need to quit looking for the easy way out, cos it always ends up doing havoc in the long-run. Instead of looking at genetically modified food, let’s think about overhauling our agricultural sector and getting young people interested in agriculture. That is practically the only feather we have in our cap, let’s not give it away.

There is no shame in being a farmer or fisherman. It is a great honor to help feed multitudes of people. Unfortunately, many young Ghanaians look down upon working in the agricultural sector. There are however, people who are willing to do the work. Like Kofi Annan for instance. He talked about the importance of overhauling the agriculture sector in Ghana and Africa as a whole. Let’s at least listen to these people and give them a chance. I didn’t even know they’d already passed the Legislative Instrument on Biosafety, which allows for field trials of genetically modified food in Ghana. We need to get this information out there so people know what they’re gonna be dealing with. Please pass on. If this bill is passed, not only will we not get to chew on our chicken bones, our children will probably have an entirely new set of diseases to deal with – and we’re barely done handling the current ones.



  1. I completely disagree with you on this matter. There is absolutely NO evidence, which suggests that GM crops are not safe. Proponents of this argument seem to be skewed towards some false vision of "organic" crops.

    Food security is important. GM crops worked for the USA, so why cant they work for Ghana? We do not have the luxury of some of these "hippies" ( i really wanted to use another term, because i like so much of the culture, but this the best i could do). Mass production, increases supply, results in cheaper food. This will increases the number of nutritional foods available to the greater population. Thus in some small way, help to increase the overall productivity of the country.

    Most of the people against Mass production of foods, are the same ones who want their apples to look shiny and clean or would not think of buying a non-uniform looking tomato.

    Any serious Ghanaian who loves their country, should not be side tracked by these one-off NGOs with their own special interest.

    So what if the US benefits. ITS CALLED TRADE. THEY HAVE THE COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE IN GM TECHNOLOGY, WE WOULD THEN HAVE THE COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGE IN PRODUCING GOODS. Thus it would be cheaper to buy it from us, than to produce it themselves, as they could use the land for other things.

    all the best

  2. Nooooo. Ghana Parliament shouldn't go that route. Not yet.
    Farming hasn't reached its upper limits in Gh yet so we can't be looking at GM crops as the next step. Fix the roads so that food can be efficiently transported from the farms to the markets. Equip the farmers with affordable machinery so that labor is used efficiently.
    If parliament tackles these two, there will be abundant food and enough for export too. Prices will be lower than they are now.
    Fix the fundamentals and then we can talk about going to the next step of increasing productivity.

  3. I definitely agree with "Ghana_Hall_Of_Shame". We need to try to diversify our primary sector, improve transport routes, farming techniques etc BEFORE thinking of introducing GM foods. GM foods should be a LAST resort after ALL avenues have been exhausted. We're just chickening out and being lazy if we opt for GM foods. Besides, even if we do go ahead and choose GM foods, without the necessary infrastructure and upheaval of the primary sector, we will STILL be unproductive. And then what does that mean? We would have given up the only bargaining chip we had in the first place.

    At Anonymous, if you want to talk about comparative advantage, Ghana (and other African countries) should generally have a comparative advantage in primary/agric goods. Yet, we're struggling in even what is our "strong" point. Trying to compete in the area of GM foods is basically putting ourselves on the chopping block, because then we have nothing necessarily "unique" about us, given the fact that there would already be forerunners. We would end up losing all "comparative advantage". You have to realise that, sad as it is, the issue of food security has less to do with rights, than it has to do with business. Mass production in this case would be a business venture. Did you listen to the videos. Even when there was evidence that the foods were unsafe, the agencies in charge went ahead and put them on the market because it would be profitable. This, therefore, does not guarantee that the number of "nutritional" foods available would be greater. Since the US is concerned about its "benefits", Ghana should be concerned about its own as well. If we have been unable to gain strategic strengths in what we have a natural advantage in, where is the logic in abandoning what we have and investing in GM technology where the US and other advanced countries clearly have a monopoly?

  4. Anonymous, hmm… sounds like you have been PAID by Monsanto to write such dribble. No country needs to sew poisonous GM seed, one may as well tie a rope round their neck, something that hundreds of Indian farmers have resorted to after having failed GM crops. Look it up! Ghana and the rest of the world just need to farm using the naturally organic farming system of Permaculture, which produces a highER yield. Many countries across the globe are now voting against GM seeds. Look it up!!!

    You can disagree all you want but facts are facts, there are many scientific reviews and video evidence for you to see online. FOOD SOVEREIGNTY not Food security, that's what Ghana needs.

    You said "Any serious Ghanaian who loves their country, should not be side tracked by these one-off NGOs with their own special interest." Maybe I'm not understanding you but, the article speaks to all Ghanaians. By special interest you must be talking about the U.S Gov/Monsanto.

    I think it is a good honest article!


  6. I will post some links here which to my view might help to understand where GMO is leading to ::
    1. Its a link about GMO debate involving the worlds big thinkers both proponents and opponents:

    2. this is a link of a proponent for GMO crops and believe that it must be encouraged. He lives in Ghana and has huge farms:

    Sometimes, i feel those who're GMO opponents are too academical which of course does not solve the real threat of food security in many especially Africa. I think anyone with an idea against GMO must prove beyond doubt that the many people dying of lack of nutrition and starvation due to weather patterns can be stopped.

    Truth is, in europe there have choices of bio-based products and others. Its a well-researched area and citizens are living comfortable. This is not so in many african countries…where they need europeans, americans and everybody to support them for daily sustenance.

    Current financial situation in the west means proposing solutions that will shield them of their donor cash.

    Will the real opponents of GMO please stand UP?

  7. I am loving your blog and completely agree with your argument re: needlessness of introducing GMOs to an agricultural sector which still has plenty of room to grow. I wonder if something similar is on the table in Nigeria. Btw, I'm your fellow SAISer, keep up the great work, VE

  8. There's nothing, absolutely nothing safer about GM foods, what if Ghana allows herself to be a guineapig and wakes up one night to find not a single natural seed left? Laugh at it but it's a possibility and a reality. It's Ok for Africa to copy the West, but don't copy blindly. Africa is literally the next super power provided she gets her $h¹+ together, and these 'folks' know that, so they will use all forms of cheap tricks to stunt growth and development in Africa, even if using GMO is they way…People, arise, this is too obvious not to be noticed. I support organic and natural all the way. To survive this unsavoury era one must get all the education they can get, and then read some more. Let's be prepared. The seeds of discord are being sowed with subtlety, literally… and GMO seeds are just one of them!

  9. I am skeptical of the claims made by proponents of GMA foods. They have not proven their safety to me and I avoid them when I can. Meanwhile I agree that Ghana has traditional foods that are as nutritious as any any where else, and I hope that the country will develop its unique agriculture instead of abandoning it. I, for one, hope that you can produce enough “Bolga beans” to be able to export them so I can buy them in California! With those tasty beans made into a stew, who needs meat?

  10. ??You are right, GMO is a poison sister, let us hold on to what our ancestors did….. farming crops/food etc are not GMO, to preserve our health and that of the unborn generation……I am saying NO to gmo anything in my life. I hope African won’t fall into the trap of the lies that is attached to GMO, as if it is doing us any good.

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